Coming Soon!

Student Recruitment Agents in International Higher Education
A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective on Challenges and Best Practices

In late Spring 2023 a new volume in Routledge’s Internationalization in Higher Education Series will be released, Student Recruitment Agents in International Higher Education. Pii-Tuulia Nikula, Vicenzo Raimo and I are co-editors, and the book includes chapters from a variety of different perspectives. Our aim in producing this new publication is to shed light on commissions-based international student recruitment agents, to help stakeholders make more informed descisions about whether and how to engage them.

The Table of Contents including chapter titles and authors follow. See here for more information including how to order copies.

Part I: Setting the Scene  1. Education Agents: Key Issues, Themes and Stakeholders Pii-Tuulia Nikula & Vincenzo Raimo  2. From Student to Agent to Faculty: How my Journey has Influenced my Work with Education Agents Shanton Chang  3. The Risky Terrain of Outsourcing Recruitment: Ethics Versus Expediency Liz Reisberg & Philip G. Altbach  Part II: Education Agent and Consultant Perspectives  4. The Agent Voice: Agents’ Perspectives on Recruiting and Student Services Before and After the Pandemic Craig Riggs  5. An Ethical Approach to Student-Centered Commission-Based Recruitment: The Way Forward Mark A. Ashwill  6. Education consultants’ work and international education: an examination of the technical and emotional dimensions Kenneth Han Chen  Part III: Agents’ Value Propositions and Impact  7. Agents and Test Preparation: The Quest for High Scores on Standardized Tests Meng Xiao and Linda Serra Hagedorn  8. International Education Agents: Lessons from the History of IDP Denis Blight  9. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Toward a student-centred value proposition for agents. Jeanine Gregersen-Hermans & Karin Klitgaard-Moeller  Part IV: Agent Management & Views of Higher Education Institutions  10. Agent Management Best Practices Pii-Tuulia Nikula and Eddie West  11. Building an Effective Agent Engagement Strategy to Empower Strategic Growth in New Zealand Brett Berquist and Marcelo Credidio  12. Recruitment Agents in Italy: Perspectives of Higher Education Institutions Enrico Sartor  Part V: Student Views  13. Pursuing Higher Education Dreams in the U.S.: Portraits of Chinese Families Assisted by an Education Agent Yi Leaf Zhang, Meng Xiao and Linda Serra Hagedorn  14. Giving voices to Chinese international students using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA): the application experiences to UK universities via education agents in uncertainty Ying Yang, Sylvie Lomer, Jenna Mittelmeier and Miguel Antonio Lim  Part VI: Government and Regulator Perspectives and Country Studies  15. Exploring the reasons for the development of India’s education agent system  Raghvendra Singh and Dylan Rust  16. Regulation, Deregulation and Self-regulation: The Evolution of China’s Policy on Education Agents Siyuan Feng  17. Education New Zealand’s agent engagement programme: Building a more sustainable international education sector Geneviève Rousseau Cung, Ana Azevedo and Sebastian Klinkum  18. Client-Agent Dispute Cases Jon Santangelo  19. Conclusions, Emerging Trends and Future directions for education agents and their stakeholders Vincenzo Raimo, Pii-Tuulia Nikula & Eddie West

Are Students Protected?

Screenshot 2018-12-24 at 2.14.35 PM

Are Students Protected? An In-depth Look Into Overseas Education Advisory Services is a research report issued earlier this year by the Consumer Council of Hong Kong. It examines Hong Kong-based agents and educational consultants who recruit and advise students interested in studying abroad.

The report identifies a number of issues, including:

  • “service providers would not readily disclose pricing information”
  • “it was clear that the service providers would not transparently disclose the relationship they had with the recommended overseas education institutions”
  • “practices of aggressive selling, bundled selling and poor quality services”

Such findings suggest an answer to the rhetorical question posed by the report’s title.

It concludes with recommendations for practitioners as well as the Hong Kong government. You can access the full report via the Consumer Council website, here.

An ethical approach to commissions-based recruitment


Late this past October University World News published An ethical approach to commissions-based recruitment, an article I co-authored with Mark Ashwill, Co-Founder & Managing Director of Capstone Vietnam.

Mark and I address the practice of educational institutions paying per-capita commissions for the recruitment and enrollment of international students. We also propose a more student-centered advising model.

I’ll have much more to say on this subject in 2019. In the meantime I hope you’ll have a read.

International Students Sue Northwestern Polytechnic University


Former students of Fremont, California-based Northwestern Polytechnic University (NPU) have brought a class action lawsuit against the school, alleging “fraud, deceit and/or misrepresentation” concerning its accreditation.

Since 1998 NPU has been accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS), a controversial organization accused of lax oversight of troubled for-profit institutions. In late 2016 the U.S. Department of Education revoked ACICS’ authorization as a federally recognized accreditor. However, the current Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, has since restored ACICS’ recognition, with further review pending.

ACICS’s future is anything but certain. According to its member directory, Northwestern Polytechnic University is accredited until December 31st, 2018. In a message posted on its web site, NPU President Peter Hsieh shared that the university has been deemed eligible to apply for Candidacy and Initial Accreditation by the WASC Senior College and University Commission. So it appears that an attempt to earn WASC accreditation is NPU’s back-up plan in case ACICS decides to terminate NPU’s accreditation, as it did in the case of Silicon Valley University, or in case ACICS itself once again loses federal authorization as an accreditor.

The students’ lawsuit alleges that NPU willfully concealed the risk it would lose its accreditation due to ACICS’ troubles, and the consequent possibility NPU students would be rendered ineligible to engage in a full 3 years of STEM-related Optional Practical Training (OPT). More than most universities, NPU attracts students by the promise of the OPT pathway. Between 2004 and 2016, more NPU graduates took part in OPT than did graduates of Harvard.

The plaintiffs are Indian students Rohit Kalakanti, Prashant Dhanani, and Manikanta Aravind Cheepi, previously of Hyderabad, Surat, and Vijayawada, respectively. Kalakanti, who first brought the suit, learned that NPU had lost its accreditation in December 2016, and in the months that followed “learned that he was ineligible for the STEM extension” of OPT because of NPU’s loss of accreditation.

The students have engaged the law firm Gutride Safier LLP to litigate the class action. The attorneys state that they “will seek to require NPU to provide refunds to students of tuition, fees, costs and any additional damages required to enroll at another university.” It goes on to say that if NPU is successful in regaining accreditation, “we will seek to require it to permit students to transfer their credits towards a new accredited degree.”

Affected students who wish to join the class action lawsuit are invited to e-mail the firm at

For more on NPU see this superb 2016 BuzzFeed investigation, describing how the university “faked students’ scores, skated by immigration authorities – and made a fortune in the process.”

University of Texas at Tyler Revokes Full-Ride Scholarships for Nepali Students


The University of Texas at Tyler has upended the plans of an estimated 40 or more Nepali students to whom they’d previously pledged full-ride scholarships, by unexpectedly revoking the awards. Late last year the Dallas area-university, 1 of 14 institutions that comprise the University of Texas system, notified students that they had been granted Presidential Fellow scholarships, which were designated to cover most of students’ expenses, as the President explained in a congratulatory e-mail:

“This means our university and hopefully your new home for the next four years is taking care of your tuition, fees, housing, meal plan, and books! Yes, I’m serious!”

But apparently they weren’t too serious.

Because on April 13th students received a very different message, explaining that the university’s “scholarship requests exceeded the amount budgeted for this year” and that as a result, “we will not be able to offer you the Presidential Fellows scholarship.” The students were instead offered a “Patriot Scholarship”, a $5,000 annual award renewable to cover all 4 years, and the in state resident tuition rate, much cheaper than the going rate for international students. The message ended with the university apologizing “for any inconvenience”.

To put this change in students’ fortunes into some perspective, the university estimates total 2018-2019 academic year expenses for Texas residents who live on-campus at $21,730. Now, with the $5,000 scholarship promised instead of a full-ride, the students would have to come up with an additional $17,000 to finance their 1st year of undergraduate education at UT Tyler, and presumably as much in each subsequent year.

The original scholarship notification announcement included the caveat that funds were limited and that the scholarships were awarded on a “first come, first-served” basis. Students were prompted to “confirm your attendance today.” However reports suggest that many of the students whose offers were revoked had in fact paid scholarship confirmation fees to secure their award.

The Dallas Morning News reports that the “2018-19 merit-based scholarships are the most ever awarded to freshmen by the university”, but that is likely no solace to those whose awards were revoked. Other local media have picked up on the story, while affected students have taken to social media to plead their case.

Meanwhile, the Department of State-supported United States Education Foundation in Nepal is attempting to provide support. Those looking to help are encouraged to contact Ms. Selena Malla, Educational Adviser, by e-mailing

Silicon Valley University Suddenly Shut Down


On April 5th, San Jose-based Silicon Valley University was informed by a state regulator that it can “no longer operate in California”, according to a report by the San Francisco Chronicle.

The action taken by the California Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education’s Department of Consumer Affairs is the latest in a series of bad news for Silicon Valley University:

December 7, 2017   The university’s accreditor – the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS)[1]revoked Silicon Valley University’s accreditation.

December 27, 2017   With the support of the California state Department of Justice, the Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education filed a complaint against the university, detailing 15 separate causes for discipline, relating to alleged violations of state regulations.

March 22, 2018   U.S. Senator Charles Grassley, Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, issued a letter to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in which Silicon Valley University is characterized as a “suspect school” and potentially a “visa mill”. Grassley concluded with a long list of questions for DHS[2], an attempt to persuade the department to crack down on dubious schools like Silicon Valley University.

This is not the first time the university has been embroiled in controversy. Along with Northwestern Polytechnic University, a comparably suspect institution, Silicon Valley University earned notoriety in 2015 when a number of its admitted students were denied entry to the U.S. despite having obtained valid Visas. The Times of India did not hold back in its criticism at the time, stating that even “a cursory tour of the institutions and interviews with students points to a massive academic rip-off“.

According to last week’s San Francisco Chronicle article, Silicon Valley University is now required to come up with a closure plan, provide “students a list of schools they might transfer to, and refund their money within 45 days.” One has to wonder whether the university will have students’ best interests in mind during the closure process.

A message on the university home page acknowledges that it has been instructed “not to conduct any classes or exams at this time, effective immediately.” It goes on to state that this “is a developing situation and we will update you next week.” Students are also directed to contact the Student Office for further information.

Yet peculiarly enough, the contact e-mail address for the Student Office is that same as that for the university’s “International Consultant in Taiwan”:

By consultant we can guess that means the university’s commissions-based international student recruitment agent. Assuming this is the same agent who steered many students to Silicon Valley University in the first place, students should think twice before reaching out, lest they find themselves pushed toward another school at risk of forced closure.


[1] ACICS itself is the subject of recent controversy. In December 2016 the U.S. Department of Education terminated ACICS’ recognition as an approved accreditor. Earlier this month the Department of Education, under the new U.S. Administration, restored ACICS’ recognition.

[2] DHS is responsible for the authorization of U.S. colleges and universities to issue the Form I-20 international students need to obtain and maintain an F-1 Student Visa.


Co-ops in Canada


Want to gain real world work experience while pursuing your undergraduate degree? Then consider heading to Canada, and opting for a co-op.

Co-ops are programs that alternate periods of academic study with periods of work experience in business, industry, government, social services, and the professions. Think of a co-op as a paid, substantive internship you complete during your degree studies. How cool is that? Very!

It’s true that many American universities make internship opportunities available to undergraduates. Some, such as Northeastern University, are even quite committed to the co-op model. But few U.S. schools can match their Canadian counterparts as to just how seamlessly co-ops are integrated into the heart of the bachelor degree experience. More than 50 Canadian universities, and over 20 colleges, provide co-op opportunities to their students.

The University of Waterloo is a Canadian leader in co-op education. UW operates the largest co-op program in the world, with nearly 20,000 of its students participating annually

Here are the defining features of the co-op experience, according to the Canadian Association For Co-Operative Education (CAFCE)

  1. Each work term is developed in partnership with the employer and approved by the co-operative education program as a suitable learning environment
  2. The student is engaged in productive work for which the student receives remuneration
  3. The co-op curriculum supports student learning goals, personal evaluation and reflection
  4. The student’s performance in the workplace is supervised and evaluated by the student’s employer
  5. The student’s progress during their work term is monitored by the co-operative education program
  6. Both work and academic terms are full-time and follow a formalized sequence.  The total amount of co-op work experience is normally at least 30% of the time spent in academic study.  For programs of two years or less the total amount may be a minimum of 25%.  A work term is defined as a minimum of 12 weeks and/or 420 hours full-time paid experience
  7. Co-op Programs begin and end on an academic term
  8. The student completing multiple work terms is normally exposed to the work environment during more than one season of the year.

Co-op allows you to get up to two years of relevant work experience while an undergraduate. Taking part in a co-op will extend the length of your bachelor’s degree program. But because most co-ops are paid, students who take part consider it a sound investment, both educationally and financially. Weekly earnings vary by placement and field, and can range from $400 to $2,000 Canadian Dollars.

For more information check out the useful Co-op Directory maintained by CAFCE, which allows you to search accredited programs by university.


Using U.S. Federal Financial Aid to Pay for Degree Studies Outside the States


One of the best kept secrets about U.S. Federal Financial Aid is that it can often be used to fund studies outside the United States. Hundreds of universities around the world participate in the program. These universities accept federal financial aid from American students, in the form of Stafford Loans and PLUS Loans.

Note: students attending a foreign university are not eligible for Pell Grant funding.

American students who are considering attending a university outside the States and want to pay for some of their expenses via Federal Financial Aid need to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), just as they would if they were planning to attend an American university.

See this U.S. Department of Education website for a comprehensive list of universities outside the United States that accept federal aid from American students. Below are universities on that list in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom – among the leading destinations for American undergraduate degree-seeking students.


  • Australian National University
  • Bond University
  • Flinders University
  • Griffith University
  • James Cook University
  • La Trobe University
  • Macquarie University
  • Monash University
  • Murdoch University
  • RMIT University
  • Southern Cross University
  • University of Adelaide
  • University of Canberra
  • University of Melbourne
  • University of New South Wales
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Sydney
  • University of Technology, Sydney
  • University of Western Australia
  • University of Wollongong


  • Acadia University
  • Bishop’s University
  • Booth University College
  • Brandon University
  • Burman University
  • Canadian Mennonite University
  • Cape Breton University
  • Carleton University
  • Concordia University
  • Concordia University of Edmonton
  • Crandall University
  • Dalhousie University
  • Emily Carr University of Art and Design
  • King’s University College
  • Kingswood University
  • Kwantlen Polytechnic University
  • Lakehead University
  • McGill University
  • Memorial University of Newfoundland
  • Mount Allison University
  • Mount Saint Vincent University
  • Queen’s University at Kingston
  • Quest University Canada
  • Redeemer University College
  • Ryerson University
  • Saint Mary’s University
  • Saint Paul University
  • Simon Fraser University
  • St Thomas University
  • St. Francis Xavier University
  • St. Stephen’s University
  • Trinity Western University
  • Tyndale University College & Seminary
  • Universite de Montreal
  • Universite Laval
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Calgary
  • University of Guelph
  • University of King’s College
  • University of Manitoba
  • University of New Brunswick
  • University of Northern British Columbia
  • University of Ottawa
  • University of Prince Edward Island
  • University of Saskatchewan
  • University of Toronto
  • University of Victoria
  • University of Western Ontario
  • University of Windsor
  • University of Winnipeg
  • Wilfrid Laurier University
  • York University


  • Dublin City University
  • Maynooth University
  • National University of Ireland, Galway
  • Trinity College
  • University College Cork
  • University College Dublin
  • University of Limerick

New Zealand

  • Massey University
  • University of Auckland
  • University of Canterbury
  • University of Otago
  • Victoria University of Wellington

United Kingdom – England

  • Anglia Ruskin University
  • Arts University College at Bournemouth
  • Aston University
  • Bath Spa University
  • Birmingham City University
  • Bournemouth University
  • Brunel University London
  • City University
  • Cranfield University
  • De Montfort University
  • Falmouth University
  • Goldsmiths College – University of London
  • Guildhall School of Music & Drama
  • Heythrop College, University of London
  • Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
  • Kingston University
  • Leeds Beckett University
  • Liverpool Hope University
  • Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts
  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • London Academy of Music & Dramatic Art
  • London Metropolitan University
  • London South Bank University
  • Loughborough University
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
  • Middlesex University
  • Middlesex University National Film & Television School
  • Newcastle College
  • Norwich University of the Arts
  • Nottingham Trent University
  • Oxford Brookes University
  • Ravensbourne
  • Regent’s University London
  • Richmond, The American International University in London
  • Roehampton University
  • Rose Bruford College
  • Royal Academy of Music
  • Royal Central School of Speech and Drama
  • Royal College of Art
  • Royal College of Music
  • Royal Northern College of Music
  • Royal Northern College of Music
  • Royal Veterinary College, University of London
  • Sheffield Hallam University
  • Southampton Solent University
  • St George’s Hospital Medical School
  • St Mary’s University Twickenham
  • Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance
  • University College Birmingham
  • University for the Creative Arts
  • University of Bath
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Bradford
  • University of Brighton
  • University of Bristol
  • University of Buckingham
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Central Lancashire
  • University of Chester
  • University of Chichester
  • University of Derby
  • University of Durham
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of East London
  • University of Essex
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Gloucestershire
  • University of Greenwich
  • University of Hertfordshire
  • University of Huddersfield
  • University of Hull
  • University of Keele
  • University of Kent
  • University of Lancaster
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Lincoln
  • University of Liverpool
  • University of London
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Newcastle Upon Tyne
  • University of Northumbria at Newcastle
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Plymouth
  • University of Portsmouth
  • University of Reading
  • University of Salford
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Sunderland
  • University of Surrey
  • University of Sussex
  • University of the Arts London
  • University of the West of England, Bristol
  • University of Warwick
  • University of West London
  • University of Westminster
  • University of Wolverhampton
  • University of Worcester
  • University of York
  • Writtle Agricultural College
  • Writtle University College
  • York St John University

United Kingdom – Northern Ireland

  • Queen’s University of Belfast
  • University of Ulster

United Kingdom – Scotland

  • Edinburgh Napier University
  • Glasgow Caledonian University
  • Glasgow School of Art
  • Heriot-Watt University
  • Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh
  • Robert Gordon University
  • Royal Conservatoire of Scotland
  • University of Aberdeen
  • University of Abertay Dundee
  • University of Dundee
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Saint Andrews
  • University of Stirling
  • University of Strathclyde, Glasgow

United Kingdom – Wales

  • Aberystwyth University
  • Bangor University
  • Cardiff University
  • Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama
  • Swansea University
  • University of South Wales
  • University of Wales – Lampeter
  • University of Wales Trinity Saint David

Oh Canada

canada flag 40

If you find yourself intrigued about university options north of the U.S.-Canada border, you’re not alone. Following the U.S. Presidential election, and years of a strengthening U.S. dollar, reports suggest growing interest in Canadian universities among American students.

Here are some basics about undergraduate studies in Canada:

  • Length of bachelor’s degree: 4-years, just like in the U.S.
  • Top universities include: McGill University, University of Toronto, University of British Columbia
  • Other excellent universities include: Queens University, University of Waterloo, University of Victoria, University of Guelph, Dalhouise University
  • Average annual tuition fees for international undergraduates: $23,589 Canadian Dollars, or approximately $17,207 US dollars as of early 2017. Note: tuition varies both by institution and field of study

For more information, check out these two widely consulted publications:

Have a Pell Grant? Apply to earn a Gilman Scholarship to study abroad.


There are lots of ways to study abroad that don’t break the bank. The Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship Program is one such way. And it’s a great one.

The Gilman Scholarship Program is funded by the U.S. Department of State, and is open to undergraduate students in the U.S. who are receiving a Federal Pell Grant, or will be when they study or intern abroad. More than 2,500 students earn Gilman scholarships each year. The program prides itself on helping students who otherwise might be unable to study abroad. Last year 46% of Gilman scholarship recipients were first-generation college students.

Awards of up to $5,000 are possible.

Approximately 1 in 4 applicants earn awards, a far higher rate than many other scholarship opportunities.

Check out this Overview to learn more about this excellent opportunity, including how to apply. And hear directly from Gilman scholars in these short and inspiring videos.

Related: Interested in scholarships for overseas study of a foreign language? Learn more about the Critical Language Scholarship Program. And find other study abroad scholarships here.